# 经济代写|计量经济学代写Econometrics代考|ECMT1020

#### Doug I. Jones

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## 经济代写|计量经济学代写Econometrics代考|Pooled Cross Sections

Some data sets have both cross-sectional and time series features. For example, suppose that two cross-sectional household surveys are taken in the United States, one in 1985 and one in 1990. In 1985, a random sample of households is surveyed for variables such as income, savings, family size, and so on. In 1990, a new random sample of households is taken using the same survey questions. In order to increase our sample size, we can form a pooled cross section by combining the two years. Because random samples are taken in each year, it would be a fluke if the same household appeared in the sample during both years. (The size of the sample is usually very small compared with the number of households in the United States.) This important factor distinguishes a pooled cross section from a panel data set.

Pooling cross sections from different years is often an effective way of analyzing the effects of a new government policy. The idea is to collect data from the years before and after a key policy change. As an example, consider the following data set on housing prices taken in 1993 and 1995, when there was a reduction in property taxes in 1994. Suppose we have data on 250 houses for 1993 and on 270 houses for 1995. One way to store such a data set is given in Table 1.4.

Observations 1 through 250 correspond to the houses sold in 1993, and observations 251 through 520 correspond to the 270 houses sold in 1995 . While the order in which we store the data turns out not to be crucial, keeping track of the year for each observation is usually very important. This is why we enter year as a separate variable.
A pooled cross section is analyzed much like a standard cross section, except that we often need to account for secular differences in the variables across the time. In fact, in addition to increasing the sample size, the point of a pooled cross-sectional analysis is often to see how a key relationship has changed over time.

## 经济代写|计量经济学代写Econometrics代考|Panel or Longitudinal Data

A panel data (or longitudinal data) set consists of a time series for each crosssectional member in the data set. As an example, suppose we have wage, education, and employment history for a set of individuals followed over a ten-year period. Or we might collect information, such as investment and financial data, about the same set of firms over a five-year time period. Panel data can also be collected on geographical units. For example, we can collect data for the same set of counties in the United States on immigration flows, tax rates, wage rates, government expenditures, etc., for the years 1980, 1985, and 1990.

The key feature of panel data that distinguishes it from a pooled cross section is the fact that the same cross-sectional units (individuals, firms, or counties in the above examples) are followed over a given time period. The data in Table 1.4 are not considered a panel data set because the houses sold are likely to be different in 1993 and 1995; if there are any duplicates, the number is likely to be so small as to be unimportant. In contrast, Table 1.5 contains a two-year panel data set on crime and related statistics for 150 cities in the United States.

There are several interesting features in Table 1.5. First, each city has been given a number from 1 through 150 . Which city we decide to call city 1 , city 2 , and so on, is irrelevant. As with a pure cross section, the ordering in the cross section of a panel data set does not matter. We could use the city name in place of a number, but it is often useful to have both.

# 计量经济学代考

## Matlab代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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