## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|PACC6007

2022年9月23日

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• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
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• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
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The basic insights the neoclassical approach reaches in the pure theory of international trade, i.e. in the explanation of what determines relative prices of commodities produced in different nations, derive from the application of reasonings similar to those presented above to cases in which factor supplies are not freely transferable across national boundaries.

Thus, let us at first assume that good $\mathrm{A}$ is the sole good produced in one nation and good B the sole good produced in another nation. Each nation uses labour and land and is incapable of producing the other nation’s good (perhaps because of climate differences), and there is no international factor mobility. (The analysis is very similar to the analysis of a neoclassical closed economy with four different factors, two of them only useful for the production of good $\mathrm{A}$, the other two only useful for the production of good B.) We assume factor substitutability, otherwise the simultaneous full employment of labour and land in either nation would be generally impossible and one would reach the implausible result of all income in each nation going to only one factor. For simplicity assume rigid factor supplies. The basic argument then is, that in each nation technical substitution induced by changes in the wage-rent ratio will ensure the full employment of the nation’s factor supplies; the supplies of good A and of good B are therefore determined, and the relative price $p_A / p_B$ in international exchange must be such as to ensure that they are absorbed by total demand. If we can assume that, as $p_A / p_B$ varies, in each nation the composition of demand varies continuously in the opposite direction, then there will be a unique value of $p_A / p_B$ ensuring equilibrium, and the equilibrium will also be stable. ${ }^{55}$ The real factor rentals in each nation will be determined in terms of the nation’s product by the full-employment marginal products of the two factors; the purchasing power of these factor rentals in terms of the good not produced by the nation is determined by the equilibrium $p_A / p_B$ ratio. The possibility to consume both goods raises the welfare in each nation relative to autarchy, if the consumers in a nation allocate part of their income to purchase the good produced by the other nation it must be because they prefer it to consuming only the good produced by their nation.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|On the Persistency of Preferences

The general equilibrium model with production confirms that general equilibrium theory needs given consumer preferences. Even in the simplest model of Chap. 3 (given supply of labour and of land, no consumer desiring to save or dissave, a single consumption good) where income distribution was determined by the direct factor substitution mechanism alone, there were implicitly assumed certain consumer preferences, the ones causing rigid factor supplies and absence of savings. Of course in more realistic models consumer choice has a more extensive role, and changes in tastes can influence income distribution not only by affecting factor supplies but even if factor supplies are rigid. But even an assumption of totally rigid consumer choices (rigid factor supplies, rigid composition of demand for consumption goods) is a way of taking consumer preferences as given. What right does the approach have to include given consumer preferences among the data of equilibrium?

The data of equilibrium must be data, that is, not affected (not modified) by the decisions for which one searches for an equilibrium, and furthermore, at least in order for equilibrium to have its traditional role of centre of gravitation of time-consuming disequilibrium adjustments, the data of equilibrium must not be rapidly changing for non-economic reasons during the time required for the gravitation to cause the equilibrium quantities and prices to give a good indication of the observable average quantities and prices. The two conditions are often subsumed under the need that the data be persistent, but the distinction between economic and non-economic reasons for lack of persistency is useful. Preferences,for example, might be irreversibly altered by economic decisions of some agents (e.g. a free distribution of wine to allow consumers better to appreciate how good-tasting wine is), or even without any such influence they might be rapidly changing in the economy under study (owing for example to the influence of religious or political preachers).

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。