## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|BU1003

2022年10月7日

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## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Shifts in the Supply Curve

The preceding examples involved changes that gave rise to shifts in demand curves. Next, we’ll look at what happens when supply curves shift. Because the supply curve is based on costs of production, anything that changes production costs will shift the supply curve, resulting in a new equilibrium quantity and price.

Recall that the supply curve is upward-sloping because when the price of skateboards is low, only those potential sellers whose marginal cost of making skateboards is low can sell boards profitably, whereas at higher prices, those with higher marginal costs also can enter the market profitably. So if the cost of one of the materials used to produce skateboards rises, the number of potential sellers who can profitably sell skateboards at any given price will fall. And this, in turn, implies a leftward shift in the supply curve for skateboards. Note that a “leftward shift” in a supply curve also can be viewed as an “upward shift” in the same curve. The first corresponds to the horizontal interpretation of the supply curve, while the second corresponds to the vertical interpretation. We will use these expressions to mean exactly the same thing. The new supply curve (after the price of fiberglass rises) is the curve labeled $S^{\prime}$ in Figure $2.14$.

Does an increase in the cost of fiberglass have any effect on the demand curve for skateboards? The demand curve tells us how many skateboards buyers wish to purchase at each price. Any given buyer is willing to purchase a skateboard if her reservation price for it exceeds its market price. And since each buyer’s reservation price, which is based on the benefits of owning a skateboard, does not depend on the price of fiberglass, there should be no shift in the demand curve for skateboards. In Figure 2.14, we can now see what happens when the supply curve shifts leftward and the demand curve remains unchanged. For the illustrative supply curve shown, the new equilibrium price of skateboards, $\$ 80$, is higher than the original price, and the new equilibrium quantity, 800 per month, is lower than the original quantity. (These new equilibrium values are merely illustrative. There is insufficient information provided in the example to determine their exact values.) People who don’t place a value of at least$\$80$ on owning a skateboard will choose to spend their money on something else.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Cash on the Table

In economics we assume that all exchange is purely voluntary. This means that a transaction cannot take place unless the buyer’s reservation price for the good exceeds the seller’s reservation price. When that condition is met and a transaction takes place, both parties receive an economic surplus. The buyer’s surplus from the transaction is the difference between his or her reservation price and the price he or she actually pays. The seller’s surplus is the difference between the price he or she receives and his or her reservation price. The total surplus from the transaction is the sum of the buyer’s surplus and the seller’s surplus. It is also equal to the difference between the buyer’s reservation price and the seller’s reservation price.

Suppose there is a potential buyer whose reservation price for an additional slice of pizza is $\$ 4$and a potential seller whose reservation price is only$\$2$. If this buyer purchases a slice of pizza from this seller for $\$ 3$, the total surplus generated by this exchange is$\$4-\$ 2=\$2$, of which $\$ 4-\$3=\$ 1$is the buyer’s surplus and$\$3-\$ 2=\$1$ is the seller’s surplus.

A regulation that prevents the price of a good from reaching its equilibrium level unnecessarily prevents exchanges of this sort from taking place, and in the process reduces total economic surplus. Consider again the effect of price controls imposed in the market for pizza. The demand curve in Figure $2.20$ tells us that if a price ceiling of $\$ 2$per slice were imposed, only 8,000 slices of pizza per day would be sold. At that quantity, the vertical interpretations of the supply and demand curves tell us that a buyer would be willing to pay as much as$\$4$ for an additional slice and that a seller would be willing to sell one for as little as $\$ 2$. The difference-$\$2$ per slice-is the additional economic surplus that would result if an additional slice were produced and sold. As noted earlier, an extra slice sold at a price of $\$ 3$would result in an additional$\$1$ of economic surplus for both buyer and seller.

When a market is out of equilibrium, it’s always possible to identify mutually beneficial exchanges of this sort. When people have failed to take advantage of all mutually beneficial exchanges, we often say that there’s “cash on the table”-the economist’s metaphor for unexploited opportunities. When the price in a market is below the equilibrium price, there’s cash on the table because the reservation price of sellers (marginal cost) will always be lower than the reservation price of buyers. In the absence of a law preventing buyers from paying more than $\$ 2$per slice,restaurant owners would quickly raise their prices and expand their production until the equilibrium price of$\$3$ per slice were reached. At that price, buyers would be able to get precisely the 12,000 slices of pizza they want to buy each day. All mutually beneficial opportunities for exchange would have been exploited, leaving no more cash on the table.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。