# 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON30003

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## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Concentration and international penetration

A. relatively large number of firms are present in the European car market, suggesting a relatively competitive environment. However, given the high degree of geographical market segmentation, it is more appropriate to consider the number of large firms per country separately. This reveals a rather different picture. In most countries only a few large firms are present. This is illustrated in table $10.1$ by the $\mathrm{Cl}, \mathrm{C} 4$, and $\mathrm{C} 7$ concentration ratios, measuring the market shares of the single largest, the four largest, and the seven largest firms. Compared with Belgium, these concentration ratios are high for Germany and the United Kingdom and especially high for France and Italy.

Furthermore, different firms are present in different markets. Except for Belgium, all countries have large domestic producers: Italy has Fiat (owning Fiat, Alfa Romeo, and Lancia); France has PSA (owning Peugeot and Citroen) and Renault; Germany has VW (owning Volkswagen and Audi), GM (owning Opel), Ford, Mercedes, and BMW; and the United Kingdom has Rover (owning Austin and Rover), Ford, and GM (owning Vauxhall). ${ }^6$ Table $10.1$ reveals correspondingly large domestic market shares in these countries.

Finally, the non-European firms, consisting mainly of Japanese firms (Honda, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Toyota), are present to different degrees in the various countries. The Japanese firms have a large market share in Belgium, a significant market share in Germany and the United Kingdom, and a small market share in France and Italy. The Japanese firms’ market share is related to the market share implied by the import quotas. In France and Italy, with very strict import quotas, the Japanese firms’ market share significantly exceeds the import quota levels, which is probably due to parallel imports. In Germany and the United Kingdom, with milder ‘voluntary’ export restraints, the Japanese firms’ market share only slightly exceeds the quotas. ${ }^7$

It is tempting to relate these structural properties of the various national markets to the observed systematic cross-country price differences, as measured by the hedonic (pretax) price index. In Belgium, the low concentration and high international penetration suggest intense competition and low markups. Correspondingly, the price level is relatively low. The other markets, Germany, the United Kingdom, and especially France and Italy, are substantially more concentrated, and they experience less competition from foreign European and non-European producers. This is reflected in a higher price index for France, Germany, ‘Italy, and the United Kingdom.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|An oligopoly model for the EC car market

Rosen (1974) considers a perfectly competitive model with price-taking firms, showing that the hedonic pricing equation (1) may be interpreted as a marginal cost function. According to this competitive interpretation, the estimated fixed effects (the $\omega_m$ ) would indicate that the marginal costs of operating were the lowest in Belgium and France, and significantly higher in Germany and especially in Italy and the United Kingdom. Kirman and Schueller (1990) argue that substantial cost differences between countries do indeed exist. However, an explanation that is based solely on cost differences is at least suspect. The above description of the EC car market, with its geographical market segmentation and cross-country differences in concentration and international penetration, suggests that firms may be charging different markups in the various countries, engaging in international price discrimination. To systematically investigate this possibility, I use the above information on the EC car market to develop a realistic yet econometrically tractable oligopoly model, covering the competitive interpretation of the hedonic pricing equation as a special case. The oligopoly model allows one to empirically investigate whether the data support a pure cost-side interpretation of the observed car price differences in the EC, or whether in addition international price discrimination is present. The model distinguishes three possible sources of international price discrimination: cross-country differences in price elasticities, import quota restrictions, and collusive behaviour.

# 产业经济学代考

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写产业经济学代考|集中度与国际渗透

A。欧洲汽车市场上的公司数量相对较多，这表明竞争环境相对激烈。但是，鉴于地理市场分割的高度，更适当的做法是分别考虑每个国家的大公司数目。这揭示了一幅截然不同的图景。在大多数国家，只有少数几家大公司。表$10.1$用$\mathrm{Cl}, \mathrm{C} 4$和$\mathrm{C} 7$的集中度比率说明了这一点，衡量了单一最大、四大和七大公司的市场份额。与比利时相比，德国和英国的这些浓度比率较高，法国和意大利尤其高 此外，不同的公司存在于不同的市场。除比利时外，所有国家都有大型国内生产商:意大利有菲亚特(拥有菲亚特、阿尔法·罗密欧和兰西亚);法国有PSA(拥有标致和雪铁龙)和雷诺;德国有大众(拥有大众和奥迪)、通用(拥有欧宝)、福特、奔驰和宝马;英国有罗孚(拥有奥斯汀和罗孚)，福特和通用(拥有沃克斯豪尔)。${ }^6$表$10.1$显示了这些国家相应的巨大国内市场份额。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写工业经济学代考| EC汽车市场的寡头垄断模型

Rosen(1974)考虑了一个具有价格接受企业的完全竞争模型，表明享乐定价方程(1)可以被解释为一个边际成本函数。根据这种竞争性的解释，估计的固定效应($\omega_m$)将表明，经营的边际成本在比利时和法国是最低的，而在德国，特别是在意大利和联合王国则要高得多。Kirman和Schueller(1990)认为，国家之间确实存在实质性的成本差异。然而，仅仅基于成本差异的解释至少是值得怀疑的。以上对欧共体汽车市场的描述，由于其地域市场分割、跨国集中度和国际渗透率的差异，表明企业可能在不同的国家收取不同的加成，从事国际价格歧视。为了系统地研究这种可能性，我利用上述关于欧共体汽车市场的信息，开发了一个现实但在计量经济学上易于处理的寡头垄断模型，涵盖了作为特例的享乐定价方程的竞争解释。寡头垄断模型允许人们实证研究数据是否支持对欧共体观察到的汽车价格差异的纯成本方面的解释，或者是否存在另外的国际价格歧视。该模型区分了国际价格歧视的三种可能来源:价格弹性的跨国差异、进口配额限制和串通行为

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MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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