# 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON1010

#### Doug I. Jones

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
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## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Efficiency and Equity

We can measure the equality of the economic outcome of a national economic system with the Gini coefficient. This coefficient is a measure to evaluate the inequality in a set of data. If we focus on income as data set, then a value of zero would mean that all people have the same income; a value of one would represent an income distribution where all income is in the hands of one person.

The Gini coefficient is calculated with the help of the Lorenz curve which plots the cumulated proportion of the poorest percentile of a population $(5 \%, 10 \%, 15 \% \ldots)$ on the $x$-axis versus the cumulated share of the total income ( $y$-axis). Accordingly, a $45^{\circ}$ line would represent perfect income equality (Figure 5.17).
The calculation of the Gini coefficient based on Figure 5.17 is
$$\mathrm{G}=\mathrm{A} /(\mathrm{A}+\mathrm{B})$$
Figure 5.19 illustrates that different nations accept different degrees of inequality.
Some Western countries with highly efficient economies exhibit rather uneven income distributions (darkly shaded areas in Figure 5.18). Such markets might be Pareto efficient, (i.e. there is no way to make someone better off without making someone else worse off but they are not equitable). An equitable allocation is one where nobody prefers someone else’s bundle of goods over his own. If the definition of a fair allocation is one that is at the same time Pareto efficient and equitable, then it seems that economics has still a lot of work to do.

The discussions in Section 5.6 and 5.7 have often focused more on macro- than microeconomics. I feel this is necessary in order to place the argument of efficient markets into a wider context.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Monopoly

In a monopoly, only one producer provides a good to a large number of consumers. It is plausible to expect that the monopolist wields market power. The important question is whether the market outcome is still efficient and whether it fulfils the conditions of the welfare functions in Chapter 5. To sum up the result, a monopoly does not maximize the sum of individual benefits (Bentham), nor does it maximize the benefits of the least lucky individual (Rawls).
There are a number of reasons for the existence of monopolies:

• Control of a scarce resource
• Natural monopolies
• Technical superiority
• Network externalities
• Government barriers
Whoever has control of a scarce resource used for direct sales or as a factor of production has power in the corresponding markets. Oftentimes this control has regional limits. A worldwide monopoly was the supply of diamonds by de Beers from South Africa. The company controlled almost $85 \%$ of the global diamond supply until 1990. One example of existing regional monopolies in construction are in some places asphalt production facilities.

Natural monopolies exist because of the ownership of costly infrastructure such as utility or railroad lines. Once a company has established a network of utility lines (fixed costs), the average costs decrease with each quantity delivered. It just does not pay for a competitor to build another network. In some countries, such monopolies are broken up by the government. Governments can force a natural monopolist to open the network for transportation of utilities (power, gas, telephone, etc.) by competitors through antitrust legislation.

Technical superiority includes design (Apple) or service superiority. In the 1950s, the Dywidag bar held an advantage in post-tensioning of structures. Later, Intel became well known for its computer chips. The last two are examples of product superiority. There are many more examples, but most provide monopolistic advantage only for a limited time. A network externality allows an individual to profit from a service better if many others use the same. Examples are Microsoft Windows, Google, or Facebook.

Governments create barriers to incentivize innovation by granting patents and copyrights. A patent protects an innovation for a number of years.

In all these cases, the producers can wield some form of power and they are likely to exercise it to their own advantage. Historical examples are the American robber barons (Rockefeller, Carnegie, Hearst, Morgan, Vanderbilt, etc.). To counter the negative effects of their economic behavior, the US legislative introduced antitrust legislation (Sherman Act, passed in 1890).

# 微观经济学代考

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Efficiency and Equity

$$\mathrm{G}=\mathrm{A} /(\mathrm{A}+\mathrm{B})$$

5.6 和 5.7 节中的讨论通常更多地关注宏观经济学而不是 微观经济学。我觉得这是必要的，以便将有效市场的论点 置于更广泛的背景下。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Monopoly

• 稀缺资源控制
• 自然垄断
• 技术优势
• 网络外部性
• 政府壁垒
谁控制了用于直接销售或作为生产要素的稀缺资源，谁就拥有相应市场的权力。通常这种控制有区域限制。世界范围内的垄断是来自南非的戴比尔斯钻石供应。公司几乎控制85%直到 1990 年全球钻石供应的比例。现有区域性建筑垄断的一个例子是某些地方的沥青生产设施。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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