心理学代写|心理学代写Psychology代考|Psychology-M2018

2022年10月13日

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
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心理学代写|心理学代写Psychology代考|STANDARDIZED INVENTORIES

Standardized inventories contain a list of questions designed to assess some feature of personality. For example, a standardized inventory on motivation may have 10 questions all designed to measure some feature of an athlete’s motives for playing sport. In standardized inventories, the questions are presented in the same way to all athletes taking the test (e.g., the questions are worded the same way and presented in the same order). Also, athletes respond to the questions in the same way (e.g., in many questionnaires they all respond on a Likert scale from 1 to 5). Any variation in the results among athletes is then due to individual differences, not the questionnaire. For example, individuals with higher levels of self-belief will score higher on standardized self-confidence questionnaires than people with lower levels. Sport psychology practitioners use questionnaires that measure either general (non-sport specific) personality characteristics or specific (sport-related) athlete attributes. One example of a general personality questionnaire is the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), which assesses the characteristics associated with the five-factor model and presented in Table $2.1$ (Costa \& McCrae, 1992). An example of a sport-specific questionnaire is the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, which assesses athletes’ current levels of cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence (Martens et al., 1990). Generally, sport psychology practitioners prefer sportspecific questionnaires over general assessment tools (Vealey et al., 2019). Sport-specific measures predict athletes’ competitive behaviour and performance better than general questionnaires.

Broadly, however, sport psychology practitioners have mixed views about how helpful questionnaires are when working with athletes (Vealey et al., 2019). Questionnaires help sport psychology practitioners to learn about clients, build good relationships with athletes, and assist them in developing an awareness of their personality tendencies. Many questionnaires, however, lack evidence that they provide useful information. Sometimes athletes do not learn any new information about themselves. Also, some clients react badly to completing a questionnaire, especially if it reminds them of being at school and sitting exams (and they found exams stressful). Given the possible advantages and disadvantages to using questionnaires, effective sport psychology practitioners tread carefully when deciding whether or not to use them with clients.

Before selecting a questionnaire to use with a client, sport psychology practitioners usually find out if the test is of high quality; if not, the information may not help, or it may even turn athletes off sport psychology. The practitioner would read the scientific literature to see if the questionnaire is valid and reliable. A valid test assesses what it purports to measure. For example, a valid anxiety questionnaire assesses anxiety and no other variables, such as confidence or motivation. A reliable test yields the same result or score when used in a similar way over time (called test-retest reliability) or when different practitioners use the same questionnaire (called inter-rater reliability). If the scientific literature provides evidence that a questionnaire is valid and reliable, then practitioners can be confident that the test may be worth using.

心理学代写|心理学代写Psychology代考|BEHAVIOURAL OBSERVATIONS

When completing questionnaires or projective tests, athletes’ responses may be biased and limited by their self-understanding. Athletes’ levels of self-understanding and bias are less likely to influence the results from behavioural observations than questionnaires and projective tests. Behavioural observations involve sport psychology practitioners watching, recording, and evaluating observable client behaviour. During a behavioural observation, sport psychology practitioners watch athletes behave, perform, and interact with others (coaches, teammates, supporters, spectators) when competing, training, or in non-sporting situations. There are several benefits from observing athletes in real settings. For example, if practitioners observe athletes over time then they can assess the effectiveness of their interventions (Holder \& Winter, 2017).

As one example, the Coaching Behaviour Assessment System (CBAS) helps practitioners observe coaches’ behaviour during competition and training (Smith et al., 1977). The CBAS contains the 12 categories listed in Table 2.2, along with examples. Coaches’ behaviours are classified as either reactive or spontaneous. Reactive behaviours follow athletes’ desired or undesired actions, and include reinforcement, non-reinforcement, mistake-contingent encouragement, mistake-contingent technical instruction, punishment, punitive technical instruction, ignoring mistakes, and keeping control. Spontaneous behaviours include general technical instruction, general encouragement, organization, and general communication.
Similar to questionnaires and projective tests, behaviour observations have advantages and disadvantages (Martin et al., 2020). On the plus side, observations allow practitioners to view athletes in natural settings and notice how social or physical factors in the environment influence behaviour. Observing athletes also provides information that practitioners can discuss with athletes at future meetings. Behaviour observation systems are flexible and can be adapted to suit different situations. On the minus side, practitioners can easily collect a large amount of data and they may be unsure what information is worth collecting. Behaviour can be ambiguous and difficult to interpret because it is not always clear how or if athletes’ actions are related to the personality characteristics the practitioner wants to assess. Further, practitioners’ biases influence their interpretations of athletes’ behaviours. For example, changes in talking (more or less), going to the toilet often, or being sick are possible signs of anxiety, but it is also possible that athletes displaying these signs are tired, excited, or unwell. Further, knowing that sport psychology practitioners are watching may lead to changes in athletes’ behaviour, either consciously or unconsciously.

心理学代写

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