## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|AEM3230

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## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|METHODS OF ALLOCATING JOINT COSTS

If all the production for a particular period is sold, the problem of allocating joint costs to products for inventory valuation and profit measurement does not arise. Inventory valuations are not necessary, and the calculation of profit merely requires the deduction of total cost from total sales. However, if some inventory remains unsold, inventories will exist at the end of the period and it is necessary to allocate costs to particular products. There is more than one method of making this allocation and, as you will see, the choice of method can have significant implications for the calculation of profit and the valuation of inventories. This area will involve the accountant in making subjective decisions that can be difficult to defend. There is no perfect solution to this problem of cost allocation and we shall see later that this also applies in other settings. All one can do is attempt to choose an allocation method that seems to provide a rational and reasonable method of cost distribution and to use it consistently. The most frequently used methods to allocate joint costs up to the split-off point can be divided into the following two categories:
1 Methods based on physical measures such as weight, volume, etc.
2 Methods based on allocating joint costs relative to the market values of the products.
We shall now look at four methods that are used for allocating joint costs using the information given in Example 6.1. Products $\mathrm{X}, \mathrm{Y}$ and $\mathrm{Z}$ all become finished products at the split-off point. We must decide how much of the $£ 600,000$ joint costs should be allocated to each individual product. The $£ 600,000$ cannot be specifically identified with any of the individual products, since the products themselves were not separated before the split-off point, but some method must be used to allocate the $£ 600,000$ among the products X, Y and $\mathrm{Z}$ so that inventories can be valued and the profit for the period calculated.

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|Constant gross profit percentage method

When joint products are subject to further processing after the split-off point and the net realizable method is used, the gross profit percentages are different for each product. In the above illustration, they are 18.33 per cent for product $\mathrm{X}, 20$ per cent for $\mathrm{Y}$ and 22.5 per cent for $\mathrm{Z}$. It could be argued that, since the three products are inseparable and arise from a single productive process, they should earn identical gross profit percentages. The constant gross profit percentage method allocates joint costs so that the overall gross profit percentage is identical for each individual product.

From the information contained in Example 6.2, the joint costs $(£ 600,000)$ would be allocated in such a way that the resulting gross profit percentage for each of the three products is equal to the overall gross profit percentage of 20 per cent. Note that the gross profit percentage is calculated by deducting the total costs of the three products $(£ 800,000)$ from the total sales $(£ 1,000,000)$ and expressing the profit $(£ 200,000)$ as a percentage of sales (i.e. 20 per cent). The calculations are as follows:

You can see that the required gross profit percentage of 20 per cent is computed for each product. The additional further processing costs for each product are then deducted, and the balance represents the allocated joint costs: $160,000,300,000$ and 140,000 , respectively.

The constant gross profit percentage method assumes that there is a uniform relationship between cost and sales value for each individual product. However, this assumption is questionable, since we do not observe identical gross profit percentages for individual products in multi-product companies that do not involve joint costs. You will see that there can be criticisms of all of the approaches; there is no perfect answer.

What factors should be considered in selecting the most appropriate method of allocating joint costs? The cause-and-effect criterion, described in Chapter 3, cannot be used because there is no cause-andeffect relationship between the individual products and the incurrence of joint costs. Joint costs are caused by all products and not by individual products.

Where cause-and-effect relationships cannot be established, allocations should be based on the benefits received criterion. If benefits received cannot be measured, costs should be allocated based on the principle of equity or fairness. The net realizable method and the sales value at the split-off point are the methods that best meet the benefits received criterion. If sales values at the split-off point exist, the latter also has the added advantage of simplicity. It is also difficult to estimate the net realizable value in industries where there are numerous subsequent further processing stages and multiple split-off points. As we have discussed, similar measurement problems can also apply with the physical measures method. A summary of the advantages and disadvantages of each allocation method is presented in Exhibit 6.1.

What methods do companies actually use? Little empirical evidence exists apart from a UK survey undertaken many years ago by Slater and Wootton (1984). They reported that 76 per cent of the responding organizations used a physical measures method. In practice, firms are likely to use a method where the output from the joint process can be measured without too much difficulty. An important point to remember is that management must not be misled by any calculation which applies to any ‘one’ of the joint products. It is not possible to make a decision about any ‘one’ of the joint products: it is all or nothing, as we shall see in the following section.

# 管理会计代考

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|METHODS OF ALLOCATING JOINT COSTS

1 基于重量、体积等物理量度的方法。
2 基于相对于产品市场价值分配联合成本的方法。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。