## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|ECON6002

2023年1月5日

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## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Profits, Class Struggle and Cartels

Kalecki joined in 1929 the newly created Polish Institute for the Study of Business Cycles and Prices (ISBCP, Osiatyński, 1990: xii). ${ }^6$ Once there, he completed a number of works in collaboration with statisticians and made his first contact with the Econometric Society. Meanwhile, he published a series of papers on the ongoing depression that formed the basis of his 1933 Essay.

After Pisudski’s coup in 1926, the new government saw the necessity of a systematic gathering of information about the economy in order to manage it efficiently. The ISBCP was thus created in 1928 by the new Minister of Trade and Finance Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski. It was headed by Edward Lipinski, then a young university professor at the School of Commerce (SGH). ${ }^7$ The institute combined two types of activity: surveys of business conditions at the level of firms and sectors (in particular industrial organization through the study of monopolies and cartels) and studies of business cycles (Osiatyński, 1990: 436). Enjoying a certain level of independence, Lipinski made the choice to recruit young researchers, most of whom, for political or religious reasons, did not have the opportunity of obtaining better positions. In a very short time, he managed to build a strong team, including Kalecki, Jan Wiśniewski,

Ludwick Landau and Marek Breit, and they all participated in the activities of the Econometric Society. ${ }^8$

Within three years, the statisticians of the ISBCP trained Kalecki in various statistical techniques that he adopted and used to deal with a whole set of new economic data. Kalecki was officially responsible for the studies on cartels, and he could use the work of Wiśniewski who had constructed a new price index taking into account the market power of firms. ${ }^9$ They also worked together on the possible ways to eliminate seasonal movements in unemployment. In addition, Kalecki worked with Landau on the estimation of investment activity and he built with him a specific method allowing to account for the data communicated by Polish firms, a work which culminated in a major study on the estimation of Polish national income.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Profits and Class Struggle

For Kalecki, the existence of a class of people who do not possess any means of production should be the point of departure of any economic analysis. ${ }^{12}$ Thus, he constantly developed models with a class of capitalists and a class of workers, and all these models had in common a mechanism where the origin of profits, on which depended the movements of the economy, was independent of the power that capitalists may exercise within their own organization or in what Marx called the sphere of production. Instead, he argued that profits originated in the “sphere of circulation” where goods are sold, in accordance with the idea that capitalists earn as much as they spend. ${ }^{13}$

This idea required the existence of a monetary system able to create new purchasing power as well as the existence of a “reserve army of the unemployed.”14 Only then did capitalists spendings could potentially push firms to adjust their levels of production and employment, the formation of real profits in the sphere of production therefore only validating a posteriori profits “created” ex nihilo in the sphere of circulation. This reveals that in Kalecki’s system, value added comes less from the exploitation of workers inside firms than from spending decisions of capitalists in the circulation sphere. For that very reason, a rise in profits is never the result of a struggle to the advantage of the capitalists to get a larger share of the national income as it is the case for Marx. ${ }^{15}$ In Kalecki’s world, capitalists have in their hands the whole fate of the economy, while workers lack any power on the mechanism of profit formation. Thus the relations between classes can impact the cycle only through their influences on political decisions which have the ability to shape the capitalists’ decisions.

The case of the effects of reduction in money wages was discussed by Kalecki in $1932(1990 \mathrm{~g})$. He built a small numerical example to illustrate why a decrease in wages could lead to a situation of deflation leading to a transfer of purchasing power between workers and capitalists, while leaving aggregate output and employment unchanged. His example started from the equilibrium condition between “social output” and “money income.”

# 宏观经济学代考

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Profits, Class Struggle and Cartels

Kalecki 于 1929 年加入了新成立的波兰商业周期和价格研究所 (ISBCP, Osiatyński, 1990: xii)。6在那里，他与统计学家合作完成了多项工作，并首次接触了计量经济学会。与此同时，他发表了一系列关于持续萧条的论文，这些论文构成了他 1933 年随笔的基础。

1926 年毕苏斯基发动政变后，新政府意识到有必要系统地收集有关经济的信息，以便对其进行有效管理。因此，ISBCP 于 1928 年由新任贸易和财政部长 Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski 创建。它由 Edward Lipinski 领导，当时他是商学院 (SGH) 的一名年轻大学教授。7该研究所结合了两种类型的活动：在公司和部门层面调查商业状况（特别是通过研究垄断和卡特尔的产业组织）和商业周期研究（Osiatyński，1990：436）。享有一定程度的独立性，利宾斯基决定招募年轻的研究人员，其中大多数人出于政治或宗教原因没有机会获得更好的职位。在很短的时间内，他成功组建了一支强大的团队，包括 Kalecki、Jan Wiśniewski、

Ludwick Landau 和 Marek Breit，他们都参加了计量经济学会的活动。8

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Profits and Class Struggle

Kalecki 在1932(1990 G). 他建立了一个小的数字例子来说明为什么工资下降会导致通货紧缩，导致工人和资本家之间的购买力转移，同时保持总产出和就业不变。他的例子是从“社会产出”和“货币收入”的均衡条件开始的。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。