## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECON656

2022年9月23日

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
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## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Categories of Ouasi-Fixed Costs

Employers often incur substantial quasi-fixed costs in hiring and compensating their employees. In general, these costs fall into two categories: investments in their workforce and certain employee benefits. We discuss each type of quasi-flxêd costs next.

Labor Investments When an employer has a job vacancy, it must incur certain costs in finding a suitable employee to hire. It has to advertise the position, screen applications, interview potential candidates, and (in the case of highly sought applicants) “wine and dine” the worker selected. A 1982 survey, for example, which was weighted toward employers hiring less-skilled workers, found that even for these vacancies, almost 22 person-hours were spent screening and interviewing applicants. ${ }^{13}$ Once hired, there are the additional costs of orienting the new worker and getting him or her on the payroll.
A hiring cost not to be overlooked-especially because it has been the subject of public policy debates-is the cost of terminating the worker. Every employee a firm hires might also have to be let go if economic circumstances or job performance require it. As we discuss in Example 5.1, policies that require severance pay or otherwise increase the costs of ending the employment relationship thus add to the quasi-fixed costs of hiring workers.

In addition to the hiring costs, firms typically provide formal or informal training to both their new and continuing workers. The costs of this training generally fall into three classes:

1. The explicit monetary costs of formally employing trainers and providing training materials.
2. The implicit, or opportunity, costs of lost production incurred when experienced employees take time to demonstrate procedures to trainees in lessformal settings.
3. The implicit, or opportunity, costs of the trainee’s time.

The simple model of the demand for labor presented in the preceding chapters spoke to the quantity of labor demanded, making no distinction between the number of individuals employed by a firm and the average length of its employees’ workweek. Holding all other inputs constant, however, a firm can produce a given level of output with various combinations of the number of employees hired and the number of hours worked per week. Presumably, increases in the number of employees hired will allow for shorter workweeks, whereas longer workweeks will allow for fewer employees, other things equal.

In chapter 3 , we defined the marginal product of labor $(M P L)$ as the change in output generated by an added unit of labor, holding capital constant. Once we distinguish between the number of workers hired (which we will denote by $M$ ) and the hours each works on average $(H)$, we must think of two marginal products of labor. $M P_M$ is the added output associated with an added worker, holding both capital and average hours per worker constant. $M P_H$ is the added output generated by increasing average hours per worker, holding capital and the number of employees constant. As with $M P_L$, we assume that both $M P_M$ and $M P_H$ are positive but that they decline as $M$ and $H$ (respectively) increase. 17

How does a firm determine its optimal employment/hours combination? Is it ever rational for a firm to work its existing employees overtime on a regularly scheduled basis, even though it must pay them a wage premium, rather than hiring additional employees?

Determining the Mix of Workers and Hours The fact that certain labor costs are not hours-related, while others are, will lead employers to think of “workers” and “hoursper-worker” as two substitutable labor inputs. Thus, the profit-maximizing employer will weigh the cost of producing an added unit of output by hiring more workers against the cost of producing an added unit of output by employing its current workers for more hours. Recalling our discussion of equation (3.8c), profit maximization can only be achieved when these two costs are equal.

# 劳动经济学代考

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写劳动经济学代考|瓦西固定成本类别

1. 正式雇用培训师和提供培训材料的显性货币成本。当有经验的员工花时间在不太正式的环境中向学员演示程序时，产生的隐性或机会性的生产损失成本。

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## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。