# 会计代写|中级管理会计代写Intermediate Management Accounting代考|ACCT2011

#### Doug I. Jones

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
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• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
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• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
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## 会计代写|中级管理会计代写Intermediate Management Accounting代考|THE ECONOMIST’S VIEW OF THE BREAK-EVEN CHART

So far in this chapter we have assumed that all the relationships are linear – that is, all of the lines in the graphs have been straight. In practice, however, this assumption will not usually hold.

Consider, for example, the variable cost line in the break-even chart. Accountants would normally treat this as being a straight line. In reality, however, the line may not be straight. This may be because, at high levels of output, economies of scale can occur. These are cost savings that arise from an increase in the volume of output.

It is possible, however, that a high volume of output will lead to diseconomies of scale. In other words, it may lead to a higher variable cost per unit of output. For instance, high usage of a particular raw material may lead to shortages, which might cause higher prices to be paid for supplies. Where there are either economies or diseconomies of scale, variable cost per unit will not stay constant over the whole range of output.

There is also a tendency for sales revenue per unit to reduce as volume is increased. To sell more of a particular product or service, it may be necessary to lower the price per unit.
For the reasons mentioned, economists recognise that relationships portrayed in the breakeven chart might easily be non-linear. Where the relationships are non-linear, the chart may therefore be as shown in Figure 3.13.

Note, in Figure 3.13, that the total variable cost line starts to rise quite steeply with volume but, around point $\mathrm{A}$, economies of scale start to take effect. With further increases in volume, total variable cost does not rise as steeply because the variable cost for each additional unit of output is lowered. These economies of scale continue to have a benign effect on cost until a point is reached where the business is operating towards the end of its efficient range. Beyond this range, problems will emerge that adversely affect variable cost. For example, the business may be unable to find cheap supplies of the variable cost elements, as mentioned above, or may suffer production difficulties, due to intensive levels of activity, such as machine breakdowns. As a result, the total variable cost line starts to rise more steeply.

At low levels of output, sales may be made at a relatively high price per unit. To increase sales output beyond point B, however, it may be necessary to lower the average sales price per unit. This will mean that the total revenue line will not rise ass šteeply and may even curve downwards. Note how this ‘curvilinear’ representation of the break-even chart can easily lead to the existence of more than one BEP.

Accountants justify their approach by arguing that, although the lines may not, in practice, be perfectly straight, this defect is not usually worth taking into account. This is partly because information used in the analysis is based on estimates of the future. These estimates will, inevitably, be flawed because of our inability to predict with great accuracy. We should not, therefore, be concerned with the minor approximation of treating total cost and total revenue lines as straight. Only where significant economies or diseconomies of scale are involved should the non-linearity of variable cost be taken into account. Furthermore, for most businesses, the range of possible volumes of output over which they operate (the relevant range) is quite narrow. When dealing with short distances, it may be perfectly reasonable to treat a curved line as being straight.

## 会计代写|中级管理会计代写Intermediate Management Accounting代考|Pricing/assessing opportunities to enter contracts

To understand how marginal analysis may be used in assessing an opportunity, consider the following Activity.

As ever with decision making, there are other factors that are either difficult or impossible to quantify. These should be taken into account before reaching a final decision. In the case of Cottage Industries Ltd’s decision concerning the overseas customer, these could include the following:

• The risk that spare capacity is ‘sold off’ cheaply. Another customer offering a higher price may come along later, by which time, the capacity has been fully committed. It is a matter of commercial judgement as to how likely this will be.
• Selling the same product, but at different prices, could lead to a loss of customer goodwill. The fact that a different price will be set for customers in different countries (that is, in different markets) may be sufficient to avoid this potential problem.
• If the business is continually unable to sell its full production potential at the ‘normal’ price, it might be better, in the long run, to reduce capacity and make fixed cost savings. Using spare capacity to produce marginal benefits may result in the business failing to confront this issue.
• On a more positive note, the business may see this as a way of breaking into a different market. This might be impossible to achieve if the business charges its normal price.

The marginal cost is the minimum price at which the business can offer a product or service for sale. It will result in the business being no better or worse off as a result of making the sale. Achieving more than this minimum price, however, will generate a profit and, thereby, increase owners’ wealth.

A marginal cost approach to pricing should only be used where it is not possible to sell at a price that will cover the full cost. In the long run, the business must more than cover all of its costs, both variable and fixed, if it is to be profitable.

## 会计代写|中级管理会计代写中级管理会计代考|定价/评估进入合同的机会

• 过剩产能被廉价“出售”的风险。另一个提供更高价格的客户稍后可能会出现，到那时，产能已经完全投入使用。至于这种可能性有多大，这是一个商业判断的问题。销售同样的产品，但价格不同，可能会导致客户商誉的损失。为不同国家(即不同市场)的客户设定不同的价格，这一事实可能足以避免这个潜在问题。如果企业持续无法以“正常”价格出售其全部生产潜力，从长远来看，减少产能和节约固定成本可能是更好的做法。使用闲置产能来产生边际效益可能会导致企业无法面对这个问题。从更积极的角度来看，企业可能会将此视为打入不同市场的一种方式。如果企业按正常价格收费，这可能是不可能实现的。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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