## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Theory of the Owner

2023年4月6日

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## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Market Demand

There are no statistics on the number of owners per year. What we do find in some countries are the number of building permits per year, and this number is substantial. At the same time, it only reveals owners who undertake new construction or renovation requiring a permit. For many small projects, this is not necessary. More unfortunately, data are available only on buildings. There were 232,069 permits issued in Germany in 2020 for buildings (Statistisches Bundesamt 2021, p. 89). This number indicates the transactions in the market; it does not calculate the number of owners – as one owner can request more than one building permit per year. If we assume somewhat arbitrarily that for residential construction each owner requests three permits per year and for nonresidential construction five permits per year, the result is shown in Table 10.8 .

What does this mean? With all the uncertainty about the exact number of owners, and considering all the buildings and infrastructure constructed without permits, both currently and in the past, it seems clear that the number of owners is large on the national level. However, it is small when compared to the manufacturing sector, where almost certainly every single person out of a population of $83,000,000$ in Germany will make at least one purchase per year (i.e., act as buyer).

Figure 10.4 shows the distribution of construction investment according to categories of construction demand for Germany in 2020. Figure 10.5 illustrates the same data for 2016 (Hauptverband der Deutschen Bauindustrie 2017, 2021). As we can see, there are noticeable shifts over a rather short period. The business cycle for building and infrastructure are not always coupled.

The European Construction Industry Federation (2021) uses slightly different categories, but the general picture that buildings dominate the market is also visible in this case. Figure 10.6 provides data for the $27 \mathrm{EU}$ countries.

## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Market Supply

The structure of construction is disaggregated. Most countries have many construction firms. Table 10.9 illustrates this statement with data from the larger European countries (European Construction Industry Federation 2020).

The data (Table 10.10) show that in all European countries, there are many construction firms with a rather small number of employees, with low average turnover per firm (European Construction Industry Federation 2020).

A closer analysis of the firm structure is provided in Figure 10.8 for the percentage of firms and the corresponding percentage of turnover for structural firms in Germany in 2020 (Hauptverband der Deutschen Bauindustrie 2021). It is obvious that small firms dominate the market in number but not in turnover. A miniscule percentage of larger firms $(0.4 \%)$ creates a sizable amount of turnover (20.3\%). I will analyse this disparity in Chapter 14 on construction markets in more depth.

Table 10.11 summarizes the number of employees in the different types of firms in construction by percentage in Germany in 2015 (Baulinks 2016). Unfortunately, there are no data available for 2019 , so the total number of employees in $2015(2,243,000)$ slightly differs from that in $2019(2,551,000$, Table 10.10). However, this affects the overall percentage only little.

The largest number of employees finds work in the finishing trades and in building service trades (electrical, mechanical, plumbing).

# 博弈论代考

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