# 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Actors in the Construction Sector

#### Doug I. Jones

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## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|The Owner as an Entity

Throughout the previous chapters, I have used the term owner to designate someone who has a structure planned, designed, and built. Now I will explain why. Words are not arbitrary; they have meaning, and they transport this meaning in communication and sensemaking.
For this reason, it is impossible to call such a person a buyer. This term presupposes a transaction in the form of an exchange, as in the case of shopping: We go into a store, pick a good, and pay for it. Such a good is called an exchange good because we exchange the good for money in the same instance. Manufacturing the good before the sale makes this exchange possible. Construction inverses this process and requires first a definition of the good, then a contract, and finally production. Such a sequence describes a contract good. Since it is the owner who defines the good, specifies the contract, and supervises construction, the owner cannot simply be called a buyer. If someone buys an existing building, then she acts by definition in the real estate sector and not in construction.
Similar in meaning is the term customer, as it defines someone who purchases a good or service customarily. The term assumes previous transactions with exchange goods and is for this reason no better suited than buyer.

The difference between consumption of and investment in a good depends on the use. People who have a one-family home built under their own supervision – with their own money and for their own private use – are consumers. Other owners who engage in planning, designing, and construction for business purposes are investors. Thus, the use of the term consumer for all people acquiring a structure is confusing. Most of them are investors, and the term investor obscures most of the responsibilities of an owner.
There are two further terms to designate the owner: client and employer. MerriamWebster defines a client first of all as one that is under the protection of another and secondly as someone who engages the advice of a professional. The first definition is always in the background and accordingly a client is seen as deficient with regard to power. This is not even true for relationships between architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, and project managers on the one side and an inexperienced person who wants a structure on the other. When we determine the relationship between the same person and contractors, we must understand that the full professional advice of architects, engineers, and project managers supports the owner so that it becomes even more misleading to address him as client, both parties depend on each other during construction. It is absurd to address the contractor as client of the owner and the same is true in the other direction.

## 经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Images and Prejudices

A well-known comic can illustrate the problem of words and images as well as their suggestive strength (Figure 11.1). The cartoon first of all shows that there are many people involved in construction: architects, engineers, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA), the sales force, contractors (field teams), and finally, the customer. The cartoon is nice for a joke but catastrophic for understanding construction. It tells a story of different groups engaging in construction who completely disregard what the others want, plan, or do. No reasonable owner will pay a single cent for the services and works delivered.

The cartoon is wrong in almost every detail, as it describes a customer who is at the mercy of ruthless foes.

The reality is more like the following: The owner initiates a building process and communicates his wishes to the architect. The architect elaborates different drawings and models requesting approval by the owner. Sensible owners (they usually act rationally) will make sure that the design meets their wishes. Architects define form and function of the building and engineers ensure safety and usability. Any change required by engineering must again meet the owner’s approval. A competent architect knows the norms and laws of OSHA and will incorporate them into the design from the beginning. An incompetent one must do it later it to get approval. Again, the owner’s approval is required. The contract with the contractor is based on the design, as agreed by the owner. Fulfilment without defects is the main contractual obligation of the contractor. If a contractor’s estimator (sales force) got the offer price wrong, this remains the contractor’s problem; contractors must abide by the contract. If the construction crews (field crews) make mistakes, that is also on the contractors – they must remedy the errors at their own expense. In the end, owners get what they want.

The cartoon transports the idea of a weak customer. Comparing the responsibilities between a buyer in the car industry and an owner in construction brings up many differences (Table 11.1).

The owner is in control of the production process in construction, while this is the responsibility of the seller in manufacturing (automobile industry).

# 博弈论代考

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