## 数学代写|密码学作业代写Cryptography代考|CS355

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## 数学代写|密码学作业代写Cryptography代考|Non-Malleability

Since anyone can encrypt anything they want with a public key cryptosystem, there is no notion of security for public key cryptosystems corresponding to integrity. However, there are some underlying ideas that do translate.

One thing that integrity is designed to protect against is tampering with a ciphertext to create a new ciphertext whose decryption is somehow related to the decryption of the original ciphertext. This property is called malleability, which we usually do not want (except when we do, see Section 8.3).

The adversary’s goal is now, based on a target ciphertext with an unknown decryption, to create a new ciphertext that decrypts to something related. The decryption of the target ciphertext must be unknown, because if it is known it is very easy to get a ciphertext with a related decryption.

It is convenient to define some language. Given any relation on the set of plaintexts, we define a relation on the set of ciphertexts by saying that the ciphertexts are related if and only if the decryptions are not $\perp$ and related.
The adversary’s goal is then to present a relation on the set of plaintexts and a valid ciphertext that is related to the target ciphertext. When considering applications, there seems to be no reason why the adversary will only want to create a single related ciphertext. There could be applications where the goal is to create many ciphertexts that are related to the target ciphertext. Individually, each of the ciphertexts may not be meaningfully related, but as a collection, they could have a meaningful relationship. We therefore allow the target ciphertext to be related to a collection of ciphertexts.

To summarise, the adversary must first get an encryption of a target message that was at least partially chosen by the experiment. The adversary must then present a relation and a collection of ciphertexts. These ciphertexts must then be related to the target ciphertext.

Just as confidentiality, where anyone can answer correctly with probability $1 / 2$, for malleability anyone can come up with a relation and some ciphertexts such that any target ciphertext is related to the proffered ciphertext collection. It is too easy for the adversary unless we correct.

We correct by measuring how easy it was for the adversary to find the related ciphertexts in the first place. We do this by having the experiment choose a second message in the same way that the target message was chosen, but keep this second message secret. If this second message is often related to the adversary’s ciphertext collection, then it is easy to create a related message. The adversary has no information about the second message, so it cannot choose the relation to take it into account.

## 数学代写|密码学作业代写Cryptography代考|Multiple Key Pairs

In practice a system that uses public key encryption will not confine itself to a single key pair. There will be many key pairs. Studying systems with more than one key pair is therefore important. The second exercise shows that it is in some sense sufficient to study a single key pair. The third exercise shows that sometimes we can do better than that.

Exercise 8.11. Define multi-key variants of the security notions semantic security, indistinguishability, real-or-random and non-malleability.

Exercise $8.12$. Use a hybrid argument to prove that for any adversary against multi-key indistinguishability, there is an adversary against indistinguishability with essentially the same runtime whose advantage is equal to the multi-key adversary’s advantage divided by the number of key pairs.

Exercise 8.13. Consider the ElGamal cryptosystem as discussed in Example 8.3. Use the techniques from that example to prove that for any chosen plaintext multi-key adversary against ElGamal, there is a solver for Decision Diffie-Hellman with the same advantage and essentially the same runtime.

This sounds reasonable, but in certain applications of public key cryptography, we would like to guarantee that encryptions are secure until the adversary asks for the decryption key. The security level changes with time.
One approach that has been used is to have multiple challenge bits, either one for each key pair or even one for each challenge ciphertext. In some sense, this captures the appropriate security notion for public key encryption. But in some applications, encryptions under different keys may contain related information. This is then not a satisfactory solution. There are many other approaches that are unsatisfactory for applications.

The above problem is real and serious, but it should probably not be seen as a problem with our definitions, but rather as indicative of a fundamental limitation of public key encryption: If a decryption key leaks, the secrecy of everything encrypted under that key is lost, retroactively. Preventing this loss of secrecy is called forward secrecy. A significant part of modern cryptographic research deals with this issue, and we shall return to it in Chapters 10 and 13.

# 密码学代写

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

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